Vanadium was discovered in 1801 by A. M. del Rio. Vanadium content in the Earth's crust is 0.015 %, it is quite abundant element, but scattered in rocks minerals. The main consumer of vanadium is the ferrous metallurgy (up to 95% of the produced metal). Vanadium is used as one of the major alloying elements in the melting of high-speed, alloyed tool and constructional cold-resistant steels. Vanadium content up to 0.15-0.25 % sharply increases strength, toughness, fatigue resistance and wear resistance of steel. Vanadium is both deoxidizing and carbide-forming element. By forming carbides, vanadium makes steel structure more fine-grained, stabilizes ferrite in austenitic steels at high temperatures and low carbon content. Vanadium is also used for alloying cast iron. He prevents graphitization, stabilizes cementite and significantly increases the depth of cast iron chill, while increasing its toughness. Vanadium is applied for alloying titanium, niobium, and chromium-based alloys widely used in aviation, rocket and space engineering. Pure metallic vanadium is used in the nuclear industry and in the manufacture of electronic devices.

Ferrovanadium increases hardenability and resistance to tempering. It is used to enhance toughness, resistance of steel to alternating loads. Ferrovanadium is also used to obtain fine-grained structure of steel.

Only oxide film tarnish and traces of foundry facing are allowed on the surface. Contamination by sand, slag and other foreign materials should be excluded.

Ferrovanadium is delivered in lumps weighing no more than 5 kg. Amount of fines passing 10-mm sieve should not exceed 5 % of the batch mass.

At the customer request, ferrovanadium may be produced of different size classes according to the table in the specification.

Ferrovanadium is transported in steel drums.

Ferroboron improves mechanical properties of steel. Addition of ferroboron to white cast iron increases its abrasion resistance. Ferroboron is used to increase hardenability of steel. Consumption of such alloying materials as Ni, Mo and Cr is reduced when boron is added to steel in quantities 0.001-0.003 %.

Only traces of foundry facing on individual particles of the ferroalloy are allowed. The surface of ferroboron lumps should not be contaminated with slag or other foreign materials.